Home Based Daycare

There are self employment of different types and the majority of people are opting to work from the convenience of their homes. Such jobs are created by taking care of young children as their parent are at work. These kind of services are home based daycare which maybe different not in the care and education given to the child but in the classification by authorities.

They may be under the registered, licensed and listed categories that operate as legitimate centres and unlisted categories that is informal that operates with three to four children under the rules and guidelines of the government. Daycare homes that may have more than five children would also be expected to adhere to the rules and acquire a valid license for the center.

It is good to have the safety of the children at heart and licensed and registered home based daycare is better than one that is not registered since it will not violate the government rules such as, income over $400 dollars is subject to tax, parents will not evade to pay fees. As little as they seem they also contribute to economy if run from one’s residence, whereby insurance policies can be obtained at a cheaper rate for the children and the care giver of such a center.

Home based daycares are monitored by qualified supervisors who report to a central agency whereby caregivers undergo a thorough background check before they can offer daycare services. The agencies also undergo an annual inspection by the local authorities to make sure that they operate under rules and regulations of the Day Nurseries Act.

Brazil – A Property Investor’s Dream?

With a relatively stable political structure and an enviably healthy economy derived largely from foreign investment into residential real estate and oil reserves, the Latin American giant Brazil is, it seems, bucking the global downturn that is affecting many markets around the world and emerging something of an investors’ dream. In fact, it was named the world’s most significant emerging market in the respected Morgan Stanley’s Emerging Market Index just recently. Beleaguered global financial markets are looking at Brazil’s economy with admiration it seems.

“Brazil’s central bank believes that it has underestimated the strength of its economy and has moved its previous forecast of 4.5 per cent GDP growth for 2008 up to 4.8 per cent,” says Samantha Gore of uv10, a Brazil property specialist company based in Spain. “Having studied figures just released, which show Brazil’s current GDP to be £749 billion in 2007, up 5.4 per cent on 2006, the official number-crunchers decided that they’d been too cautious.

Brazil does seem to be resilient to the turbulence in the northern half of the Americas, a turbulence which has sent shockwaves across Europe. And, while the Spanish property market is currently down on its luck, Brazil has the very same to thank for making a major contribution to its current fortune.”

Its property market is still very much in its infancy, however. Prices are still well below the £80k mark in most areas and are expected to yield a good rate of capital growth over the next few years as current demand way outstrips supply.

Estimates suggest capital growth could be as much as 20 per cent year-on-year. Nearly eight million new homes are needed to cater for the country’s growing population, but while its cities like Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro may be home to the largest number of its residents, it is the north-east region that is seeing a surge in investment property.

Much of the current real estate development is focused on the Rio Grande do Norte region on the north-east coast, and more specifically around Natal, the region’s capital. The city is widely regarded as having some of the finest palm tree-lined beaches and lagoons in the world that stretch for 400 or more miles. The coastline is characterised by a chain of sand dunes, including the Genipabu and Tibau do Sul dunes that have bars and restaurants dotted along their length, and the bays of Pipa and Pirangi. Small resorts are springing up, although the whole area is still new in terms of real estate development.

Uv10 is currently marketing a number of developments in the north-east. Among them, the Quinta da Lagoa resort of 83 high-spec studio, townhouses and bungalows that the company says is ideal for rentals. Located in Tibau do Sul, near Natal, the development guarantees five per cent gross per annum for three years from delivery. “Judging by the figures from its sister resort, Pousada dos Girassois in Pipa, which enjoys 80 per cent occupancy per year, you could stand to make a lot more,” says Gore. “Girassois is one of the most successful developments in Pipa and the value of property for sale in Pipa has doubled in just two years.” Prices at Quinta da Lagoa start from around £45,200.

Around 80,000 new houses and apartments are earmarked for the north-eastern region, especially around Natal, to cater for the region’s growing population and the demand from foreigners for second residences. While this appears a large figure the area is vast however, and development is controlled by the government to protect the environment, adding to the area’s appeal as an investment hotspot. Combine this with the potential for some good rental returns from the region’s increasingly buoyant tourism sector that has seen significant investment in sports and leisure centres in recent years, and you have an area of Brazil that is becoming more and more appealing.

“The property market in Natal is in its relative infancy and the coastline is almost development-free; supply currently lags way below demand,” says Trevor Byrne, GEM Estates’ Brazil expert. “New development is springing up alongside sporting and leisure facilities but the authorities are paying great attention to the environment before granting licenses – aesthetics and stability are of greater importance to them than squeezing every last penny out of every last square metre.”

GEM Estates is currently offering spacious beachside apartments and villas in Tibau do Sul for as little as £75,200 and village apartments in nearby Maracajaú from £45,000. Its Lago Azul development in Tibau do Sul has a frontline beach position with ocean views. There are many on-site amenities, such as pools and tennis courts. So confident is the company in the project that it is offering all clients a seven per cent guaranteed rental return for three years from completion. The company also has Ma-Noa Park in the village of Maracajau, near Natal, which is famed for its on-site aqua park and extensive sports facilities, including a golf course and football pitch. Prices are low and capital growth expected to be high.

“Prices of property for sale in Natal are incredibly low right now but outside investment in infrastructure such as golf courses and a new airport will increase demand for property and inevitably trigger natural price hikes,” adds Byrne. “Being the closest part of Brazil to Europe, thus drastically cutting down flying times to between seven and nine hours from most European cities, Natal has phenomenal beaches, a permanent summer and with year-round rental potential suits both audiences – the pure investor and the holiday-home hunter.”

The whole area, which enjoys a glorious climate, has attracted government funding to protect the natural heritage as well as enhancing the tourist infrastructure. Development work is closely monitored so as not to detract from the area’s natural wonders. Its towns, villages and small resorts are connected by the coastal highway that winds its way through countryside overlooking the bays and dunes, while Natal’s Augusto Severo International Airport has regular flights to and from Europe. A brand new multimillion-pound airport is under construction and is due to be completed by 2010. It will be the largest airport in Latin America.

Further investment has come though the likes of international sports stars Rubens Barrichello, who is building a motor sports facility in the region, and David Beckham, the force behind a football academy in Natal. The project is timely for when Brazil hosts the 2014 World Cup. The region around Natal is also earmarked for several large golf courses. Projects such as these increase the region’s potential for tourism, and thereby rental income and capital growth on real estate investment significantly.

“The investment in the general infrastructure and tourism in the north-east of Brazil has been significant over the past few years, and is set to continue for the foreseeable future,” says Deanne DuKhan, portfolio strategist with specialist property company Experience International in London. The company is currently marketing a number of new high specification projects, including the Jacuma Beach Resort in Natal where prices start from just £63,700, the nearby luxury beachside resort of Praia Bonita, where studios and apartments start from £39,070 and the gated community of Pipa Paradise, which comprises 128 sizable apartments and villas that offer good value at prices from £61,899.

“The government is committed to developing the area and with the new airport just a couple of years away we feel that property in the Natal area and along this coastline of Brazil offer some of the most exciting investment opportunities we have seen in a long time.”

Why Is Public Finance Management So Important To Development?

In response to the Paris Declaration (2005) and the Accra Agenda (2008) leading to commitments for donors to channel more of their aid to developing countries through country systems, there has been a growing shift away from program and project aid – typically managed or overseen directly by the contributing development partner – to budget support where aid is channeled directly through the developing country treasury’s consolidated revenue fund account. As one might expect, as a consequence of this growing shift to budget support there has been a corresponding increase in donor focus on the performance of Public Finance Management in the countries that receive budget support. This is as should be, given the increased real or perceived fiduciary risks associated with the use of country systems to manage the hard earned taxes of the citizens of development partner countries.

But this is only one side of the story. Unfortunately there is not yet that much interest or appreciation in the other side of the story. On the other side of the story are the citizens of the developing countries who may suffer as a consequence of tinkering with Public Finance Management systems in the name of reform, which may only serve to undermine current weak systems and set them back even further. Public Finance Management seems inaccessible to most of us. Even where it is accessible to us we deem it to be boring, inconsequential and something only dreary accountants and auditors need bother about. But think, Public Finance Management is about our money, it is about our children’s future, it is about our development.
The importance of Public Finance Management and its reform derives as a consequence of its direct role in implementing policy – be it about improving education, achieving better health care, promoting tourism, or increasing agricultural yields. With weak Public Finance Management systems, even where policy makers come up with sound policy, it may not be possible to implement such policy effectively. Further, quite uniquely Public Finance Management performance affects the performance of all other sectors – yes the macroeconomic environment and so private sector opportunity and the service delivery in agriculture, health, education, transport, energy, public safety and the list goes on. When it works, all other sectors have a chance of succeeding; but when Public Finance Management fails all other sectors fail.

We as citizens of developing countries ought to be more concerned about who drives the agenda for Public Finance Management reform. Is it the IMF, as it imposes Public Finance Management Reform conditionalities that are not just tied to strengthening or improving budgetary systems, but are tied specifically to the adoption of particular reform approaches – despite such approaches having in some instances failed in more than one country. Is it the World Bank as it makes the adoption of integrated financial management information systems (IFMIS) the basis for support in reforming the Public Finance Management systems? Or is it the result of wide internal debate and consideration by the country citizenry influencing their elected leaders to address the basic things that they know do not work using approaches that are within the reach of our capacity rather than adopt reform methods that may not yet be appropriate to our circumstances?

This donor interest in improving Public Finance Management performance has led to immense pressure on countries to adopt new public management approaches. These have included (1) medium term expenditure frameworks (MTEF) often pushed to be implemented long before a country may have developed the capacity to make credible their annual budgets and even as developing partners themselves continue to struggle with their capability to disburse funds predictably in-year, more so as measured in a medium term perspective; or (2) the use of policy based budgeting such as program and activity based budgeting long before they have the institutional capacity to effectively coordinate programs, develop the fiscal space for meaningful policy consideration, or access the monitoring data to properly evaluate policy outcomes; or (3) the adoption of integrated financial management information systems (IFMIS) to manage expenditure which occurs across as many as thousands of spending units many of which still struggle with issues of staff retention, electricity supply or integration into a national financial administrative network. The challenges of managing at the level of spending units under an IFMIS implementation has led to a roll out strategy limited to treasuries (payment centres). Control over payments is often too late to impact on the accrual of expenditure arrears which can have important detrimental macroeconomic stability impacts; or (4) full accrual accounting even as financial reports based upon a cash accounting standard are not comprehensive, show signs of low data integrity and are issued late. A review of country experience across many developing countries who have adopted the new program management approaches in their Public Finance management reforms shows that these efforts have often not been successful by any reasonable measure.

The primary reason for this widespread Public Finance Management reform failure is often attributed to political economy considerations by developing partners – poor governance, high levels of corruption and the like. Of course that is part of the equation, but in contrast it is striking that there are cases of dramatic success of particular elements of Public Finance Management reform in such areas as debt management, certain aspects of revenue administration and public procurement in even what are considered the most corrupt developing countries. Is the political economy focus just another way of suggesting that the poor success record of many of these new public management approaches is solely the responsibility of the developing countries and has little to do with the immense influence that the donor community has had over in setting the Public Finance Management reform agenda?

Clearly, it is time to recognise that considerations of the different sides of the question as to what reform methods to adopt or whether Public Finance Management is, or should be, driven principally by the disbursement conditionalities set by donors; or arrived at through much wider debate and careful consideration by the citizenry and leadership of developing countries might lead to quite different conclusions. The consequence of wider discussion between developing country actors could lead to a more balanced, realistic, relevant and ultimately effective approach to Public Finance Management reform in developing countries.

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